Jean Clottes
Margret W. Conkey
Francesco d'Errico
Henry de Lumley-Woodyear
Merlin W. Donald
Christopher Stuart Henshilwood
David Lewis-Williams
Paul Anthony Mellars
Steven J. Mithen
Jane M. Renfrew
Paul S. C. Taçon
J. Wentzel van Huyssteen
Keith Ward

ABOVE ANIMATION#1: The Alpine ibex shown fighting on the wall of a part of Lascaux known as the Axial Gallery are drawn in black (animal on left) and dots of yellow (animal on right). Between them is a rectangular symbol. Above them and to the left of the black ibex are horses, the most numerous of all the animals depicted in Lascaux.

Courtesy of Serge deSazo/Rapho


ABOVE ANIMATION#2:The largest African antelope, the eland, is depicted in many representational paintings in southern Africa. The animals, like these from Natal Drakensberg above, play an important role in the beliefs of San Bushmen.

Courtesy of Jean Clottes


ABOVE ANIMATION#3:In Lascaux’s Axial Gallery, small horses, similar to Prjwalski’s horses that could still be found in the nineteenth century in the steppes of Mongolia, gallop across the ceiling. The segment pictured above is part of a grand composition.

Courtesy of Serge deSazo/Rapho

Professor emeritus of cognitive archaeology at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, David Lewis-Williams is internationally recognized for his research into the art and beliefs of the San Bushmen, a society of modern hunter-gatherers that flourished from at least 10,000 years ago until the end of the nineteenth century in the southern parts of the subcontinent—and that still flourishes in the Kalahari Desert. His fieldwork, which led him to theorize that Upper Paleolithic paintings are remnants of shamanic ritual, has fundamentally changed the way many scholars interpret rock art in southern Africa. The director of the Rock Art Research Institute at Witwatersrand for many years, he now serves as its senior mentor. Dr. Lewis-Williams earned an undergraduate degree from the University of Cape Town and a B.A. Honors degree from the University of South Africa. He was a visiting fellow for a year at Clare Hall, Cambridge University, and went on to receive a Ph.D. in social anthropology from the University of Natal in 1978. Joining the faculty of Witwatersrand as a lecturer in social anthropology, he was appointed senior lecturer in archaeology in 1981 and named ad hominem professor of cognitive anthropology in 1987. Dr. Lewis-Williams is a fellow of the Royal Society of South Africa and a patron of the Transvaal Branch of the South African Archaeological Society. A former president of the South African Archaeological Society, he also served for many years on the International Committee for Rock Art of UNESCO’s International Council on Monuments and Sites. He has lectured widely throughout South Africa, Europe, and the United States. A recipient of Witwatersrand’s Distinguished Researcher’s Award, he also received the American Historical Association’s 2003 James Henry Breasted Award and the Society for American Archaeology’s Excellence in Archaeological Analysis Award, which was presented to him in April 2004. Dr. Lewis-Williams is editor of the Khoisan Heritage Series for the University of Witwatersrand Press. He was invited to translate the new, post-apartheid South African national motto into the now extinct /Xam San language. In addition to more than 130 articles in scientific journals, he is the editor of two books and the author or co-author of a dozen others, including, most recently, The Mind of the Cave: Exploring Consciousness and Prehistoric Art (Thames & Hudson) and A Cosmos in Stone: Interpreting Religion and Society through Rock Art (Altamira Press), which were both published in 2002.

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