Colin Renfrew, Disney Professor of Archaeology Emeritus at Cambridge University and senior fellow at the university's McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, is internationally renowned for his contributions to archaeological theory and science as well as to the understanding of European prehistory and linguistic archaeology. Beginning in the mid-1960s, his examination of the process of cultural change led him to the conclusion, later confirmed by the revolution in radiocarbon dating, that the originality and creativity of the early inhabitants of Europe had been undervalued by proponents of diffusionist ideas who saw innovations spreading exclusively outward from the Near East. Dr. Renfrew was educated at St. Albans School and St. John's College, Cambridge. After taking first-class honors in archaeology and anthropology, he went on to study at the British School of Archaeology at Athens then returned to Cambridge where he earned a Ph.D. in archaeology in 1965. He began his teaching career at the University of Sheffield and was named professor of archaeology and head of the archaeology department at the University of Southampton in 1972. Appointed to the Disney chair in 1981, he also headed the archaeology department at Cambridge for eleven years. In 1990, he was selected as founding director of the McDonald Institute, a center for post-doctoral research with a particular interest in the archaeology of early human cognition, which he led for fourteen years. Formerly a fellow of St. John's College, Dr. Renfrew is a fellow of Jesus College, where he served as master from 1986 to 1997. He is a fellow of the British Academy, the Society of Antiquaries of London, and of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in addition to being an honorary fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, an honorary member of the Society for Cycladic Studies, the Archaeological Society of Athens, and The Prehistoric Society, and both a foreign associate of the (U.S.) National Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society, as well as a corresponding member of the German Archaeological Institute and a foreign member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1991, he was created a life peer by Queen Elizabeth II. A recipient of Rivers Memorial Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, the Huxley Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, the Prix International Fyssen of the Fondation Fyssen in Paris, the Language and Culture Prize of the University of Umeå, the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the European Science Foundation Latsis Prize, and the Balzan Prize for his work in prehistoric archaeology, he has been awarded the senior doctor of science degree from Cambridge University and honorary degrees from the University of Athens, the University of Sheffield, the University of Southampton, the University of Liverpool, the University of Edinburgh, the University of St. Andrews, the University of London, and the University of Kent at Canterbury. Dr. Renfrew formerly served as a trustee of the British Museum and as vice president of the Prehistoric Society, the Council of British Archaeology, and the Royal Archaeological Institute. He currently serves as a trustee of the Antiquity Trust. He serves as a member of the editorial boards of New Directions in Archaeology, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, the Journal of Social and Biological Structures, and the Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. His own archaeological excavations in Greece have led to numerous publications. In addition to papers published in academic journals, he is the editor of two series, New Aspects of Antiquity (Thames & Hudson) and New Studies in Archaeology (Cambridge University Press), and the editor of twenty books, including, most recently, two with Iain Morley: Becoming Human: Innovations in Material and Spiritual Culture (2009) and The Archaeology of Measurement: Comprehending Heaven, Earth and Time in Ancient Societies (2010), both published by Cambridge University Press. Dr. Renfrew is also the author of another thirteen volumes. His path breaking The Emergence of Civilization: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium BC and Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe were published in 1972 and 1973, respectively, and his widely influential Archaeology & Language: The Puzzle of the Indo-European Origins came out in 1987. His most recent books include: Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership: The Ethical Crisis in Archaeology (2000), a revealing account and forthright condemnation of the illicit excavation and export of antiquities, Figuring It Out (2003), an investigation of the convergence between modern art and archaeology, and Prehistory: The Making of the Human Mind, a study published in 2007 by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, which sums up the progress of prehistoric archaeology, particularly the importance of dating with radioactive elements and genetic analysis, and explores current challenges, arguing that permanent residence in one place was a pre-requisite for the emergence of material culture.